Air Pollution, Poverty and Health Effects (APPH)

The Air Pollution, Poverty and Health Effects in HCMC (APPH) project aimed to develop a conceptual framework on the linkages between urban air pollution, health and poverty for Asia, with Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) as a case study. The project included a

• Hospital-based study, which found a strong link between air pollution, especially ozone and NO2 and admissions for acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in young children (

• Household-based study that estimated personal exposures to air pollution, and survey respondents recognized the impact of air pollution on health, but non-poor give higher importance to air quality than the poor.

• Policy study to review of air pollution, health and poverty-related policies in HCMC and Vietnam.

The Health Effects Institute conducted the hospital and household studies. Clean Air Asia conducted the policy study and included a review of the government institutional framework and the policies relevant to air pollution, poverty and health and provided recommendations at the national and HCMC level to strengthen the:

• Institutional framework to support AQ policy-making and implementation;

• Policies themselves including the APPH cross-linkages between individual policies

• Measures to manage the sources of air pollution

Official project title: Air Pollution, Poverty and Health Effects in HCMC
(TA 4714-VIE)

Donor ADB

Partner: Health Effects Institute (HEI)

Duration: October 2007 – June 2008

Clean Air Asia Contact:

Project Documents

APPH household study handout
APPH hospital study handout
Air pollution and admissions for acute lower respiratory infections in young children of Ho Chi Minh City
S Mehta et al – Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health
March 2013, Volume 6

ADB Technical Assistance (TA) 4714
[inline: 4=Inception Report (16 Feb 2007)]
[inline: 5=Air Pollution, Poverty and Health in Ho Chi Minh City]

[ header = Activities]

  • Launch Workshop
    Air Pollution, Poverty and Health Effects in Ho Chi Minh City Policy
  • Consultation Workshop
    Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    25-26 March 2008
  • Air Pollution, Poverty and Health Effects in Ho Chi Minh City Presentation to National and Hanoi Stakeholders
    Hanoi, Viet Nam
    27 March 2008

List of Studies linking air pollution, poverty and health:

    • Bobak M, Leon DA. 1999. The effect of air pollution on infant mortality appears specific for respiratory causes in the postneonatal period. Epidemiology 10:666–670.
    • Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. 2002. Air pollution and health. Lancet 360:1233–1242.
    • Dockery DW, Pope CA III, Xu X, Spengler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, et al. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. Cities. N Engl J Med 329:1753–1759.
    • Gouveia N, Fletcher T. Time series analysis of air pollution and mortality: effects by cause, age and socioeconomic status. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000;54:750–5.
    • Gwynn RC, Thurston GD. 2001. The burden of air pollution: impacts among racial minorities. Environ Health Perspect 109(suppl 4):501–506.
    • Institute of Medicine. 1999. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs. Washington, DC:National Academy Press.
    • Jerrett M, Burnett R, Brook J, Kanaroglou P, Giovis C, Finkelstein N, Hutchison B. 2004. Do socioeconomic characteristics modify the short term association between air pollution and mortality? Evidence from a zonal time series in Hamilton, Canada. J Epidemiol Community Health: 58:31–40.
    • Luginaah I, Jerrett M, Elliott S, et al. Health profiles of Hamilton: spatial characteristics of neighbourhoods for health investigations. GeoJournal 2001;53:135–47.
    • Martins M H, Fatigati F, Ve´spoli T, Martins , Pereira L, Martins M A, Saldiva P, Braga A. 2004. Influence of socioeconomic conditions on air pollution: adverse health effects in elderly people: an analysis of six regions in Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil. J Epidemiol Community Health ;58:41–46.
    • O’Neill M, Jerrett M, Kawachi I,1 Levy J, Cohen A, Gouveia N, Wilkinson P, Fletcher T, Cifuentes L, and Schwartz J, with input from participants of the Workshop on Air Pollution and Socioeconomic Conditions. 2003. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 111 :1861-1870.
    • Ponce A, Hoggatt K, Wilhelm M, and Ritz B. 2005. Preterm Birth: The Interaction of Traffic-related Air Pollution with Economic Hardship in Los Angeles Neighborhoods.American Journal of Epidemiology, 162: 140-148.
    • Sexton K, Gong H Jr, Bailar JC, Ford JG, Gold DR, Lambert WE, et al. 1993. Air pollution health risks: do class and race matter? Toxicol Ind Health 9:843–878.
    • Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, Dockery DW. 2000a. Airborne particles are a risk factor for hospital admissions for heart and lung disease. Environ Health Perspect 108:1071–1077.

Presented below are the policies that were reviewed as part of the third component of the APPH project. The policies are categorized into two main sections: national policies and policies which apply to Ho Chi Mihn City. These are further sub-divided according to their categories and targeted sectors.


General Development Strategy/ Masterplan

Five Year Socio-economic Development Plan 2006-2010
Ambient Air Quality Standards

Ambient Air Quality Standards TCVN 5937-1995 (2005 updates)

Sectoral Policies


Law on Environmental Protection 2005
Providing Detailed Regulations for Implementation of Law on Protection of the Environment
National Strategy on Environmental Protection towards 2010 and its Orientations towards 2020
Decision No. 64/2003/QD-TTg OF April 22, 2003 Approving the Plan for Thoroughly Handling Establishments which Cause Serious Environmental Pollution
Circular Guiding the Setting up and Appraisal of Assessment Report on Environmental Impact
Decision No. 16/2007/QD-TTg of January 29, 2007, Approving the General Planning on the National Network of Natural Resources and Environment Observation
Decree No. 121/2004/ND-CP OF May 12, 2004 On Sanctioning of Violations in the Field of Environmental Protection
Joint Resolution No. 01/2004/NQLT-TLD-BTNMT of November 15, 2004 on Coordination of Environmental Protection Activities for Sustainable Development
Decree No. 80/2006/ND-CP of August 9, 2006, Detailing and Guiding the Implementation of a Number of Articles of the Law on Environmental Protection
Decree No.26-CP Of April 26, 1996 of the Government on Sanctions Against Administrative Violations In Environmental Protection
Decision No. 82/2002/QD-TTG Of June 26, 2002 on The Setting Up, Organization and Operation of Vietnam Environment Protection Fund
Decision No. IM/2007/QD-TT-August 2, 2007, On a Number of Financial Mechanisms and Policies Applicable to Investemnt Projects Under the Clean Development Mechanism
Approving the Strategy on Application and Development of Natural Resource and Environment Information Technology Till 2015 And Orientation Towards 2020
Decision No. 153/2004/QD-TTG Of August 17, 2004 Promulgating the Oriented Strategy for Sustainable Development In Vietnam (Vietnam’s Agenda 21)


Approving the Planning on Development of Vietnam’s Automobile Industry till 2010, with a Vision to 2020
TCVN 6438-2001 Motor Vehicle ” Emission Maximum Limits”
Decree No. 23/2004/ND-CP dated January 13th 2004 of the Government Providing on the Using Timeframe for Trucks and Passenger Automobiles
Decree No. 110/2006/ND-CP: Enterprises and Households Engaged in Automobile Transport Business in the Vietnamese Territory
Directive No. 24/2000/CT-TTg dated November 23rd 2000 of the Prime Minister on Mandatory Use of Unleaded Gasoline
Integrated Action to Reduce Vehicle Emissions


Decision No. 20/2003/QD-TTG Of January 29, 2003 Approving the Development Planning for Vietnam’s Coal Industry In the 2003-2010 Period, With the Prospects till 2020 Taken into Consideration
Decree No. 45/2001/ND-CP Of August 2, 2001 on Electricity Activities and Use
Decree No.102/2003/ND-CP Of September 3, 2003 On Thrifty and Efficient Use of Energy
Decision No. 164/2002/QD-TTG Of November 18, 2002 Approving the Adjusted Planning on Development Of Vietnam’s Cement Industry Till 2010 and Its Orientations Till 2020
Air Quality: Industrial Emission Standards Inorganic Substance and Dusts -TCVN 5939-1995 (2005)
Air Quality: Industrial Emission Standards Organic Substances- TCVN 5940-1995 (2005)

Construction Law

      Promulgating The Statute On Management Of Urban Planning




Comprehensive Growth And Poverty Reduction Strategy


Approving The Strategy For Protection And Care Of The People’s Health In The 2001-2010 Period
Policy Making

Law on Promulgation of Legal Instruments
Law on Amendment of and Addition to a Number of Articles of the Law on Promulgation of Legal Instruments

General Development Strategy

HCMC Socio-Economic Orientation Until Year 2010 (summary)
HCMC Master Plan 2025
URL: /
Sectoral Policies


HCMC Environment Strategy 2002-2010
Update of HCMC Environment Strategy 2002-2010
Decision No.: 80/2002/QĐ-UB dated 08/07/2002 by Ho Chi Minh City People Committee Approved the Removal of Producing Factory Causing Pollution to the Industrial Zone and Nearby Area.

Decision 101/QD-TTg dated Jan 2007 – Plan on Transportation Development in HCMC until 2020