GHG and Air Pollutant Indicators for Transport and Energy Sectors in Asia

Asia is urbanizing fast, and larger cities mean more transport and a greater demand for energy. Air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport and energy will continue to rise in the future. Larger cities mean more transport. Carbon dioxide and other GHG emissions contribute to climate change. From a health perspective, diesel emissions are of particular concern because they cause cancer as confirmed by the World Health Organization, and small particulates (PM10 and PM2.5) which exacerbate asthma and other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Black carbon, or soot, from petrol and diesel vehicles also contributes to global warming as it absorbs light.

To reduce emissions from transport and energy, Asia needs better policies, investments that support low emissions development, and incorporation of emissions across the supply chain of goods and services. To achieve this, policy makers, investors and corporations need reliable and useful data. Data systems must be designed based on data requirements, incorporate data collection, reporting and verification using standard methodologies and in coordination with relevant agencies and other organizations.

Clean Air Asia brought together various organizations to work in partnership to improve access to air quality and climate change data with the aim to further enrich policy development interventions relevant to energy, transport and urban development. The partnership’s initial focus is on 13 countries and 24 cities in Asia (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam). The partnership was initiated with funding from World Bank Development Grant Facility (DGF) with co-financing from other partners.

The partnership focused on developing benchmark data for air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from transport and energy, supplemented with guidelines and an online database.

The Benchmarking Report: Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Indicators on Transport and Energy for Asia presents the first benchmark of air pollutant (PM) and greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions for 13 countries and 24 cities across Asia for road transport and electricity generation. It includes:

  • Road transport. Total road transport emissions for Asia and individual countries and cities. The emissions intensity is expressed by population, GDP, passenger and freight movement, vehicle types and fuel types. Data are provided for underlying emission drivers, including growth in vehicle numbers, motorization index, fuel consumption, and travel activity.
  • Electricity generation. Total electricity generation emissions for Asia and individual countries. The emissions intensity is expressed by population, GDP, end-use sector, and fuel type. Data are provided for underlying emission drivers, including electricity access, generation, consumption, and efficiency; and fuel mix.
  • Country Profiles and City Profiles with data for emissions and underlying drivers for road transport and electricity generation.

Guidelines for development, measurement and use were prepared on how to measure and use indicators for Asia, based on existing guidelines by the European Environment Agency, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and US Environmental Protection Agency. This is to facilitate and encourage consistent data collection in the future. The benchmark data in this report and on the CitiesACT database were assessed for quality and consistency through expert reviews and comparison against these guidelines

Data are publicly available on the Online CitiesACT Database ( will be launched at the Better Air Quality conference in Hong Kong in December 2012 ( Data for transport and electricity generation cover more emission types: CO2, PM, Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Sulfur dioxide (SO2). This database also includes reported ambient air quality levels were compiled for over 400 Asian cities, and is the main data source for Asia for the World Health Organization’s database of outdoor air pollution in cities.

Official project title:
Knowledge Partnership for measuring Air Pollution and GHG Emissions in Asia

Donors and Partners: World Bank Development Grant Facility (DGF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), the German Development Cooperation (GiZ), Energy Foundation, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Institute for Transport Policy Studies (ITPS), Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD), and Veolia

Other partners: Clean Air Asia Partnership members

Duration: Nov 2009 -Dec 2012

CAI-Asia contact:
Kaye Patdu,
Alvin Mejia,

Attachment Size
PPT on Open Data for LED in Asia 25Jan2012_SP 4.65 MB
0027_APGHG_Project_Summary_Dec2012.pdf 644.99 KB
Accessing_Asia_2012_Edition_Executive_Summary.pdf 175.94 KB
Accessing_Asia_2012_Edition_Country_Profiles.pdf 1.32 MB
Accessing_Asia_2012_Edition_Guidelines.pdf 3.42 MB
Accessing_Asia_2012_Edition_MAIN_REPORT.pdf 4.46 MB